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Secrets of 22 astronomical phenomena in the temples of the Pharaohs


The ancient Egyptians relied on sunlight in their lives, and in their worship as well, and if they wanted to express the great power of the sun, they called it “Ra,” and they began to pray to “Amun Ra” whom they called “Lord of Light.”, the sun disk was the emblem of King Akhenaten's revolution, and he chose the name Aten for it.

Light played an important role in determining the architectural composition of the ancient Egyptian temples, and there is a great relationship between astronomy and the orientation of many of the monuments of ancient Egyptian kings and queens, towards the east or west, and most Egyptian temples witness multiple astronomical phenomena, such as the perpendicularity of the sun, and the perpendicularity of the moon as well.

The pharaohs liked their directions to their religious buildings, and observing the sky played a fundamental role in constructing those buildings, including temples and pyramids, thus they built temples according to the stars and the original earthly directions, and temples were used as a observatories to the stars and to record time.  

The ancient Egyptians pioneered astronomy

The astronomical phenomena that were monitored and documented inside temples proved that pharaohs pioneer to astronomy and engineering and the ability of constructing their temples with an engineering and astronomical miracle, this made the rays of the sun perpendicular on the holy of the holies of many temples, and in specific days of the year to coincide this perpendicular with main religious occasions, popular feasts and historic events every year.      

An Egyptian research team was able to monitor 22 new astronomical phenomena inside the Temple of Habu, the Temple of Deir el-Bahari, which was built by Queen Hatshepsut, the Temple of Isis in Luxor, the temples of Deir el-Hajar, Hebes, and Ghuita Palace in the New Valley, the temples of Kalabsha, Gebel el-Silsilah, and Edfu in Aswan, and the Temple of Dendera. In Qena, next to the Great Pyramid of Giza.

An astronomical phenomenon in the Great Pyramid

One of the most prominent astronomical phenomena observed by the team, which worked with the approval of the Permanent Committee of the Supreme Council of Antiquities of Egypt, is that February 27 of each year witnesses the rays of the noon sun perpendicular to the Great Pyramid, and the fall of those rays, which represent the stage of adolescence and youth of the sun god "Ra. Hoor Akhty," at the same angle of inclination of the facades of the Great Pyramid, from which light is reflected on the four facades of the pyramid, which were smooth, polished, and white in color from limestone, to appear as a mass of reflected light.

 The northern facade of the Great Pyramid, which was built by King Khufu in the Giza Pyramids area, remains dark 137 days a year, and the sun returns to illuminate it for 228 days.

According to the research team, the conjunction of the sun on the Great Pyramid coincides with the feast day of the appearance of the god Horus in the ancient Egyptian religion, where the sun’s rays continue to illuminate the four facades of the pyramid at noon for a period of 228 days, and then the northern facade of the pyramid becomes dark, as a result of the difference in the angle of inclination of the sun’s ray, at noon, it becomes less than the angle of inclination of the northern facade of the pyramid, so it becomes in the shadow area, starting on October 14, which coincides with the feast of the god Osiris, when the northern facade of the Great Pyramid becomes dark for 137 days, until light returns to it again with the noon sun perpendicular to it on February 27.

Important meaning

A unique astronomical and engineering miracle was observed in the Pharaonic temples of Habu, west of the city of Luxor, which is that the sun’s rays connect the temples of Karnak (the center of the universe according to Pharaonic beliefs) in the east of the city of Luxor, and the temples of  Habu city in the west of the city, and then fall on the columns of the second hall in the Habu temples, to light up paintings representing King Ramesses III offering sacrifices to the gods, which is the scene engraved on 8 columns, as they light up one column after another, from south to north, on the days of the spring and autumn equinox, corresponding to September 21 and March 21 each year, coinciding with the It is called the Decennial Celebration Processions.

The new phenomenon in the Habu temples carries an important religious significance for the ancient Egyptian, as studies documenting the sun’s journey in the other world confirm that the sun’s journey to the other world takes place over the course of 12 hours, which is astronomically consistent with the sun’s journey on the days of the spring and autumn equinoxes, where they are equal. number of hours of day and night.

Known phenomena

These astronomical phenomena join the well-known phenomena that preceded them, such as the sun perpendicular to the Holy of Holies of the Temple of Abu Simbel, south of the city of Aswan, for the sun’s rays to illuminate the statue of King Ramesses II, in an astronomical event that is repeated in the months of february and october every year, and the phenomenon of the noon sun perpendicular to the Great Pyramid, and the temples of Dendera in the west of the city of Qena, and Hebes in the New Valley, and Edfu in Aswan, and Abydos in Sohag, and the temples of Ptah and Ramses III, in the famous Karnak temple group, coinciding with what is known as the transition or summer solstice of the sun, marking the beginning of the summer season for the ancient Egyptians.

These astronomical phenomena, represented by the sun perpendicular to the temples of the Pharaohs in the cities of Egypt, come as an embodiment of the “philosophy of light” in ancient Egypt, and the ancient Egyptians’ reverence for the sun, and confirm their prowess in astronomy, a prowess that is also indicated by what they left behind from the illustrated maps of the sky or carved on the ceilings of tombs and temples, and from dated tables indicating the positions of the stars at night, as their calendars and true knowledge of the year testify to, the amount of effort they devoted to studying the movements of celestial bodies, and they also monitored solar eclipses and eclipses, but it is proven that the orientation of buildings, including temples, shrines, and pyramids, played an important role in the lives of the ancient Egyptians.

The pictures and inscriptions found on the walls of their temples and tombs indicate that all the processes of building religious facilities were connected to observing the stars, in order to know the correct direction for the temple they wanted to build, all the ancient pyramids, temples and shrines that are spread throughout the governorates of Egypt were found to have special directions.

The Luxor Museum of Ancient Egyptian Antiquities and the Library of Alexandria hosted an exhibition entitled “Shrines of the Sacred Horizon,” which contained 28 paintings documenting the sun’s perpendiculars on ancient Egyptian shrines and temples.

The Seven Astronomical Wonders of Ancient Egypt

The Egyptian Society for Tourism and Archaeological Development chose a list of the seven best archaeological sites, and included them in a list it called “A List of the Seven Astronomical Wonders of Ancient Egypt.

 

The list, which was selected by a team of Egyptologists, archaeologists, astronomers and engineering scientists, included seven Egyptian archaeological sites that witness the perpendicularity of the sun’s rays on specific days throughout the year, in remarkable astronomical phenomena..

The Great Pyramid of Giza came in second place, the Karnak Temple in eastern Luxor third, then the Temple of Queen Hatshepsut, known as the “Temple of Deir el-Bahri,” on the western mainland of Luxor fourth, the Temple of Dendera west of the city of Qena fifth, then the Temple of Habu west of Luxor sixth, and finally the Temple of Edfu. North Aswan VII.

 The sun and temples

On the twenty-first of June every year, researchers and Egyptologists follow one of the largest astronomical phenomena known to ancient Egypt, as the noon sun sets perpendicular to six ancient Egyptian temples on the occasion of what is known as the transition or summer solstice of the sun, marking the beginning of the summer season for the ancient Egyptians.

The sun illuminates the darkness of the Holy of Holies

Lord of Light

On the most holy day of the god Amun, “Lord of Light,” the sun’s rays illuminate the center of the famous Pharaonic temples of Karnak in the historic city of Luxor in Upper Egypt.

The rays of the sun seep in from the eastern gate of the temples that were built thousands of years ago, emitting its light amid the darkness of the Holy of Holies.

This astronomical event coincided with the beginning of winter, and this astronomical phenomenon occurs sometimes on December 21, and sometimes on December 22, and changes from December 21 to 22 with the advent of each leap year.

Temple of Our Lady of Happiness

The coincidence led the Belgian photographer, Carolina Amouri, and her companion, the Egyptology researcher, to discover a new astronomical phenomenon, in the temple of Dendera, dedicated to the worship of the goddess Hathor (Lady of Happiness) in ancient Egypt.

Amori, who resides in the Italian city of Turin, showed pictures that monitor the phenomenon of the noon sun perpendicular to a painting of the goddess Hathor, inside the Temple of Dendera, which was dedicated to her worship, on the day of the feast of her husband, the god Horus, coinciding with the noon sun’s perpendicularity on the statue of Horus, inside the Holy of Holies of the Temple of Edfu. North of Aswan Governorate, it is the perpendicular that takes place on the summer solstice every year.

A new astronomical phenomenon in the Great Pyramid

Within the framework of the study by astronomers, architects and Egyptologists of the relationship of astronomical phenomena in general and the sun in particular to ancient Egyptian architecture and its connection to the prevailing beliefs of the Pharaohs, a study by researcher Dr. Ahmed Awad - who, along with a research team, was able to observe 22 astronomical phenomena in the temples and shrines of the ancient Egyptians - stated that the northern facade of the Great Pyramid, which was built by King Khufu in the Giza Pyramids area, remains dark for 137 days a year, and the sun returns to illuminate it for 228 days.

The study showed that last February 27 witnessed the conjunction (perpendicularity) of the rays of the noon sun with the Great Pyramid, indicating the fall of the rays of the noon sun, which represents the youthful phase of the sun god “Ra Hor-Akhty,” at the same angle of inclination of the facades of the Great Pyramid, from which it was Light reflection on the four facades of the Great Pyramid. 

The conjunction of the sun on the Great Pyramid coincides with the feast day of the appearance of the god Horus in the ancient Egyptian religion, as the sun’s rays continue to illuminate the four facades of the pyramid at noon for 228 days, then the northern facade of the pyramid darkens as a result of the difference in the angle of inclination of the noonday sun’s ray, becoming less than the angle of the northern facade of the pyramid tilts, so it becomes in the shadow area, starting on October 14, which coincides with the feast of the god Osiris, the northern facade of the Great Pyramid becomes dark for 137 days, until light returns to it again with the conjunction of the noon sun on February 27.

According to the study, the royal tombs, which were built in the shape of pyramids, are a physical embodiment of the rays of the noon sun, which represents the deity “Ra Hor-Akhty.”, the angle of each pyramid differs from the other, according to the desire of each king to be associated with the deity of the sun on a holiday day different from the conjunction with other kings. .

Sun rays connect the temples of Karnak and Habu

One of the exciting astronomical phenomena in ancient Egyptian temples is the phenomenon witnessed by the Habu temples on the western side of the city of Luxor, where the sun's rays connect the Karnak temples in the east of the city, and the Habu city temples in the west of the city, and then fall on the columns of the second hall, in the Habu temples, to illuminate Paintings representing King Ramesses III offering sacrifices to the gods, which is the scene engraved on 8 columns, which are illuminated one column after another, from south to north, on the days of the spring and autumn equinoxes, corresponding to September 21 and March 21 of each year, and coinciding with what is called, With the processions of the Decennial celebrations, during which the god Amun moved from his headquarters in the Karnak temples to visit the “ancient ancestors” who were buried in the Habu temples.

According to researchers, the sun's rays reach the two temples at an angle of 90 degrees..

This phenomenon carries an important religious significance to the ancient Egyptian, as studies documenting the sun’s journey in the other world confirm that the sun’s journey to the other world takes place over the course of 12 hours, which is astronomically consistent with the sun’s journey on the days of the spring and autumn equinoxes, when they are equal, the number of night hours, along with the number of daylight hours.

 

 

 

 

 



 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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