the emporor Ardashir 
The Sassanids were a powerful Iranian dynasty that ruled Iran from 224 to 651 AD, ruled Iran after the fall of the Ashkan state,  the name Sassanids goes back to the family’s grandfather, Sasan, who was the ruler of the fire temple in Istakhr, but the true founder of the state was Ardashir known for his military prowess and unification of Persia, the son of Sasan, or it was said his grandson, Ardashir, with his unique personality, was able to establish a strong state that restored the empire that the Persians had lost their hands. 

After Bābak got Ardashīr the military post of argabad in the town of Dārābgerd (near modern Darab, Iran), Ardashīr extended his control over several neighbouring cities

He carried out several administrative and cultural reforms to make it a system of governance for his young state, he divided his subjects into classes, for each class, the class of rights and duties, and the ranks of the army officm, he organized the armies and conducted their salaries in peace and war so that they would always be ready.

He approved of Zoroastrianism, which he saw as a form of reform for the state, and thus he approved the religion of the state, he collected the religious book (the Avesta) and devoted himself to translating and explaining it, he forced the clergy to call for Zoroastrianism, and he made an effort to establishing fire houses, and finally making the clergy an honorable class whose rank comes after the royal and aristocratic classes.

Shapur era

Once he had completed building his state in the way he wanted, he passed away in the year 241 AD, after him, his son Shapur (Sapur), and this name has two syllables:

 Shah Dhi Pour, which means the king’s son. 

Shapur was a skilled military leader who led the Sasanian army to victory over the Roman Empire in a series of wars, conquered large swathes of territory from the Romans, including Mesopotamia, Syria, and Armenia.


Shapur, like his father, was a wise king and an experienced politician, he paid attention to the internal organization of the state, established security and built cities, new ones, the most important of which are:

 Shapur in Fars, Jundisapur in Ahvaz, and Shad Sabur in Maysan, Shapur also built dams and bridges throughout his country, including the Shadvan Dam and the Dezful Bridge.

Perhaps one of the most prominent non-political or military events that took place during the reign of Shapur was the emergence of a new religious call the most recent of them is a claimant of prophecy named “Mani.     

whose followers were known as Manichaeism, as this new religion philosophically blended Zoroastrianism Judaism and Christianity, so Mani claimed that the teachings of the new religion had been revealed to him, and that he was the expected savior. What religions used to call for. 

Some historians believe that when Shapur believed in the doctrine of Mani, he only wanted to unite the religions of the East The West is a universal religion, the principles of which combine the beliefs of Judaism, Christianity, and Zoroastrianism alike, but the idea is like a bird, it flies, it was shaved, or imprisoned, and became anxious, as the principle of “corruption of the spirit” was quickly established in it Its basis is that the eternal evil of the world is money and women, as they represent the constant cause of human misery, and the only solution, it is the commonality of both, so money must be in the hands of every person whenever he wants... and so should a woman!

From here, other religions, especially the Abrahamic religions, launched a war against Manichaeism, and considered it pornographic. 

 Byzantines and Mazdakism the conflict with  

Shapur died in 272 AD, followed by his son Hormuz, who passed away about a year later. The kings succeeded one another on the throne of the Sassanid state, and they had no choice but to confront their traditional opponent from the Romans Byzantines. 

However, there was an internal danger whose effects were reflected on the state, represented by the temptations of religious pretenders, this matter was clear during the reign of Qubad ibn Fayrouz, when Mazdak appeared claiming religion it is new, making people believe that it is a reformist religion because of what Mani brought, at that time, “Mazdakism” became the new state religion, and Mazdak gained political power, until he dared to issue orders, appointing the king and his crown prince, he was killed for this at the hands of King Qubadh and his crown prince Khosrow, known historically Khosrau Anushirwan.

Khosrau Anushirvan era  

Historians consider Khosrau Anushirvan to be the greatest king of the Sassanid state he was political, just, and virtuous, he was praised by Arabs and Persians, but he prevented common people from getting an education, because in his opinion, “if the lowly people behave themselves, they will seek excellence, so they will obtain it and control  the status of the nobles.”

During the reign of Khosrau Anushirvan, security was established, which led to the boom in trade, agriculture and industry flourished, and the caring for Human Beings When he established Bimaristan (hospital) in Jundishapur, it later became one of the largest medical schools In the Islamic State, he began to pay special attention to science and scholars, as it is said that he sheltered major Greek scholars and their philosophers, after the Romans expelled them from their state, contained them in his court and settled them in Jundisapur. 

The movement of translating sciences from Sanskrit and Greek into the Iranian Pahlavi language flourished, Khosrow Anushirvan died in the year 579 AD, after ruling forty-eight years, and his son ascended the throne of the state. Hormuz, whose reign was known for conspiracies, strife, and revolutions, after him, Khosrow Abreviz sat at the helm of power,  Abarviz was not spared from the conspiracies, and the senior commanders of his soldiers turned against him, so he took refuge with his opponent, the Roman king. Abarviz's marriage to Maryam, the Tsar's daughter, had the effect of establishing a long truce between the two rivals, and this led to The truce led to stability that lasted for two decades, during which both parties were able to rebuild their state and develop its facilities Until Iwan Khosrau abreviz became one of the wonders of the world at that time, the last of the Persians was Yazdgerd, whose state fell at the hands of the soldiers of Islam led by Saad bin Ubayy Waqas in “Al-Qadisiyah''. 













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