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Assyrian invasion of Egypt

 The Assyrian invasion of Egypt represents the first form of conflict between the civilization that arose in Mesopotamia in Iraq and the civilization that arose in the Nile Valley in Egypt.

Egyptian civilization had been invaded more than once from the east, but it was an invasion by uncivilized Asian nomadic tribes, once in the first  intermediate period after the collapse of the Old Kingdom (the Asian Bedouins), and again after the second intermediate period  after the era of the Middle Kingdom (the Hyksos)

But as for the Assyrian invasion, that it was coming from the country of Iraq, where the civilizations of Mesopotamia were located, and therefore this invasion was not only a military conflict, but there was a cultural interaction between these two civilizations, affecting and being influenced by them.

  Reasons for the invasion

One of the main objectives of the Assyrian invasion of Egypt was to maintain its economic power by opening new markets, exchanging trade and securing roads.

In addition to collecting tribute.

Egypt's challenge to Assyria's influence in the Levant and its cutting of Assyrian trade routes was a reason for its invasion by Esarhaddon, who was unable to complete his conquest of it, so Assyrianipal completed it.

As Assyria approached the end of the second millennium BC, it was consolidating its sovereignty over Babylon at a time when the empires of the region (such as the Hittite state) had escaped, and the state of Assyria began to control its lands and develop its influence there until all eyes became focused on Nineveh, the capital of the great Assyrian Empire.

After observing this enormous influence of the Assyrian Empire at the expense of the empires of the region, the Egyptian state realized the danger of this power and learned that there was no point of strength left for Assyria except the state of the Pharaohs, and that it would undoubtedly be crowded out by its centrality and would seek to control and expand in the regions of West Asia close to the borders of Egypt.

Accordingly, the Egyptian state tried to ward off this danger through a set of steps, the first of which was a peace treaty between it and the Hittite state, which Pharaoh Ramesses II concluded with the Hittite king Khatusil to unify forces and form a unified front against the Assyrian state.

While the Pharaoh (Nisi Pan) intended to appease the Assyrian state and win its love by sending gifts and giving gifts to the Assyrian king Neglatbalazer I as a gesture of affection and peace.

But the Pharaohs' kings who succeeded King Nasi Pan did not follow the method of sending  prizes and gifts, but rather took the path of hostility..... What did they do? What was the Assyrian response?

The Egyptians and Cushites began agitating the peoples within the Assyrian Empire in an attempt to gain a foothold in the region. As a result, in 701 BC, Hezekiah of Judah, King Lul of Sidon, and Zedekah, King of Ashkelon and Ekron, formed an alliance with Egypt against the Assyrians.

With the increase of  the influence of the Assyrian Empire and its conquest of large areas of territory, some of the Pharaohs tried to change their ways to ward off danger from them and protect their borders from the Assyrians. They deliberately supported the armies of the kingdoms spread between Mesopotamia and the Nile Valley against the Assyrians who were trying to impose their control over these kingdoms.

Assyrian invasion

When Sargon II sat on the throne of this state around the year 722 BC, its ambitions increased, and Egypt had supplied the people of Palestine and Syria to resist the Assyrian invasion.

The Assyrian texts mentioned that they defeated the armies of Egypt and its allies in the Levant.

While the stories of the Torah and Egyptian texts contradicted it  in some of what she claimed for her people. And the story began after the armies of Sina attacked the ruined southern Hebrew kingdom, “Judah,” which sought help of  the Egyptians, so they helped it, not out of love for it, but to continue its work as one of the sites of repelling the Assyrian invasion.

The texts of Sina-Kharib narrate that he took control of 46 of its major cities, in addition to registering many of its villages and sections among his supporters, including the rulers of Ekron, Ashdod, and Gaza. He captured more than two hundred thousand of its people, and besieged its capital, Jerusalem, “Urshalimo,” during the reign of its king, Hezekiah, and its prophet. Isaiah.

Sargon took revenge on this position and marched to Palestine and from there to Egypt. He reached Rafah and reached the Egyptian border, and met Egyptian forces that cooperated with the Palestinians. They turned him back on his heels and he abandoned the attempt to invade Egypt.

Once again, Ashurbanipal sent the Assyrian army to Egypt, which entered it without difficulty, and the princes of the Delta submitted obedience to him. He headed towards Memphis and entered it. Tanut-Amun fled to Thebes. The Assyrian army advanced south until he reached the city of Thebes, bloodied it, and plundered it, and Tanut-Amun fled from it to Nubia.

The two teams' war strategy

The two teams here are the invading Assyrian army and the resisting Egyptian army.

The divisions of the Egyptian army were mostly similar to the Assyrian army, as their divisions varied between infantry, cavalry, and navy.

Recruitment in Egypt was mostly hereditary, as it was Organizing the army into divisions, battalions, and factions requires appointing commanders for these various military sectors.

Each commander had a military rank commensurate with his type of leadership, and mercenary soldiers also played an important role in both The two armies.

Some sections of the Assyrian army differed from the Egyptian ones in terms of their antiquity of chariot weapons, which they developed well.

As for Egypt, it was not created from the beginning as an independent weapon until it took on its importance with the personal of the king in Assyria, so they became the backbone of the army, unlike their importance in Egypt, which was limited to protecting the Pharaoh.

The methods of psychological warfare varied in strategy, and the Pharaohs and Assyrians used consistent methods in implementing them With the course of events during that period, this can be discussed below:

The Pharaohs worked on innovation in psychological warfare, by changing plans and discovering methods new, Thutmose III worked to develop war tactics by discovering the element of surprise, and striking on multiple fronts, and recording historical events, as Ramses II used the principle of steadfastness and opening loopholes.

The concept of psychological warfare among the Assyrian kings was more general and comprehensive, as they were more violent than the Egyptians.

Their war strategy was to display military power to incite fear and terror in people.

The souls of the enemies, and they also used the phenomenon of mass terror, using cruelty and violence in order to achieve security for their country and as a result they transferred the battle to the enemy's arena.

 They had a nasty reputation for being merciless, cold-blooded killers. The people were scared. Rather than a quick invasion, the Assyrians would first launch an emotional attack. One that would challenge their values ​​and beliefs. It will become a test of faith.


The Assyrians also used the war of rumours, intelligence, and espionage, which was widespread throughout the empire, their tactical psychological warfare was represented by field propaganda and terrorism. 

They also intended to spread conflict among the enemy leaders, introduce distrust into them, and work to raise doubts with the ability of their leaders, they also used the principle of blogging as a propaganda factor before delegations of foreign countries.

















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